RQ2: Does the distribution of EO characteristics vary at different types of schools?
ANOVA revealed elementary teachers were significantly higher on innovation than middle or high school teachers (p = .027). Middle school and high school teachers were not significantly different (p > .999). Elementary teacher scores were significantly higher on proactiveness than high school teachers (p = .002), while there were no significant differences between middle and high school teachers (p = .807).
Elementary teachers were significantly higher on innovation than middle or high school teachers. Elementary teachers were significantly higher on proactiveness than high school teachers. Possible reasons for this finding may stem from differences in multiple subject and single subject credentialing in California. These teachers have different motivations for entering the profession, different backgrounds, and different training.
RQ3: Are certain EO factors more frequently reported by teachers.
ANOVA showed all teachers reported significantly higher levels of innovation than proactiveness. All teachers reported significantly higher levels of innovation than risk taking. All teachers reported significantly higher levels of proactiveness than risk taking (all ps < .001). Innovativeness was the most frequently reported EO characteristic with a mean of 4.54, followed by proactiveness with a mean of 4.36, and then risk taking with a mean of 3.09. These significant differences indicate that the EO factors of innovativeness, proactiveness, and risk taking are distinct constructs and may be examined independently.
RQ4: Is one subgroup of teachers more disposed to innovativeness, proactiveness, or risk taking?
Multiple regression analysis showed that gender had a significant effect on all three subscales and overall EO score. ANOVA testing revealed that females reported a higher overall EO score and significantly higher levels of innovation and proactiveness (all ps < .02). There was no significant difference in risk taking (p = .140). There were no significant differences in EO levels by ethnicity (all ps > .154). While this study revealed that female teachers scored significantly higher on innovativeness and proactiveness than their male counterparts, it does not suggest that female teachers produce higher student achievement, however, female teachers may be more suited to educational start-ups than male teachers.
This study demonstrates that EO research is relevant in education. Teacher EO examination may provide districts with a cost effective method in identifying school leaders and instructional talent more likely to be successful in start-up schools. Further, educational leaders may benefit from understanding how EO and the individual factors of innovativeness, proactiveness, and risk taking impact their practices and procedures.